Greetings from Northern Minnesota where I will be spending the rest of the summer months getting some much needed rest and relaxation (as well as catching up on writing that I need to get done!).
In this post, I am going to offer some thoughts and reflections regarding our trip to Costa Rica that began on May 23rd and finished on June 8th. Our (myself and my MA students Jessy Arends and Sallie Dehler) mission during this two-week trip together was to present preliminary results from our prior research trips back to the communities, organizations, and individuals that contributed to our data collection or would have interest in the findings we are developing.
Before I discuss this trip and what we were up to, it’s important to briefly review the theoretical and applied anthropological goals of this National Science Foundation-funded project. In a nutshell, the project is aimed at understanding the movements and motivations of Costa Rican migrants to the 10 kilometer buffer zones of three Costa Rican national parks: Arenal, Carara, and Barra Honda. In the past two summer field seasons we used cognitive anthropological methods, also referred to as cultural consensus modeling, to elicit and test whether there is shared cultural knowledge (a model) among migrants to these zones. As well, we employed more traditional interview and survey methodologies to gather data regarding migrants’ backgrounds and opinions about the environmental and economic conditions in their prior and current communities. The project was developed as a response to several publications that used global-level data to demonstrate that populations in park buffer zones are growing at higher levels than in comparable rural areas, likely due to internal migration. Thus, the project is relevant to the continued anthropological conversation regarding the social, cultural, environmental and landscape impacts of creating parks and protected areas. As well, our work can be applied to the theoretical and practical discussions regarding the ways to manage protected areas in ways that both protect biodiversity and improve the relationship between parks and local human populations via conservation-based development (i.e. ecotourism).
With this in mind we had three main groups with whom we wanted to share our findings: the national park administrators, local government offices, and conservation organizations. Another main goal of our trip was to return and share our data with individuals that expressed particular interest in our project during our prior research trips. I was proud of our efforts to contact these folks in our very short time in each community. In all I gave six formal presentations: one at each of the national parks, two Asociaciónes de Desarrollo (Development Associations, the most local level of Costa Rican governance), and a formal presentation at the University of Costa Rica in the city of San José. Forty-two people showed up to our presentation at the University and they peppered me with over 30 minutes of questions at the end!! My favorite was, “Based on what you’ve learned in this project, what would you do to improve things between communities and parks if you were the director of the Ministry of the Environment?” That, was not an easy question to answer!! We also delivered printed formal reports to two municipalities and five other development associations. Finally, we visited with a number of individuals to both deliver the formal report and maintain our friendships (see our prior post by Sallie Dehler regarding the community of Abanico in the buffer zone of Arenal National Park for a good example of such an interaction).
David Presenting at the University of Costa Rica
While we were very successful at contacting folks and sharing our data, we could always do better, and this is one of the main lessons from this year’s field season. While it is not surprising to anyone that has worked in rural places in Latin America (and elsewhere), contacting and planning presentations from the U.S. was difficult to accomplish, so we had to leave much of our planning to the last minute when we were actually in the communities. Of course, with such short notice, many people and organizations were occupied, which then limited our ability to provide formal presentations and deliver reports. So, while we were certainly able to present to people, more lead time and better communication on our part would have provided more chances. In particular, the municipalities where we dropped off our preliminary reports would have loved a presentation, but needed formal notification to fit us into their weekly meetings. The lesson learned is to do more of the lead work (finding contacts within the organizations) to establish better connections for planning purposes. As applied anthropologists, we are obliged to share our data back to the people whom we study, and we learned a number of lessons about how to do this in a more effective manner in the future.
While we could have done more, we were very happy with the receptions we had at all the formal presentations and with the other organizations we contacted. The park administrators all thanked us for providing an essential service for them, and they were all very interested in continuing to find ways to not only understand the communities around them (something they have very little time and money to do), but to also engage them in ways that are mutually productive. They were also quite excited about the GIS-based website that our partners as the University of Costa Rica’s Observatorio de Desarrollo (Development Observatory) put together (to check it out go here: http://www.nsf.odd.ucr.ac.cr/sig/map_default.phtml). The municipalities and development associations were also very attentive and interested in our results. They showed keen interest in the ways our data can help them to manage their communities’ growth in the future. Finally, it was incredible to appear “out of the vapors” for many of our informants to show them what our collective data had to say. It was not only fun to discuss our work, it was so nice to visit with people that taught us so much. A personal highlight for me was a visit with Don Mariano and Doña Norma in the buffer of Barra Honda. We caught up on recent events in our lives and, as always, they showed us around their property and shared the bounty of their lovely rural plot.
David and Don Mariano, Barra Honda National Park Buffer Zone
Lastly, I wanted to share an observation that will likely be no surprise to those that have worked in rural development, but one that was reinforced during our time in the field this past few weeks. One thing that was surprising during our presentation at Barra Honda was–despite the fact that Barra Honda has the smallest number, most distant, and poorest communities in its buffer zone–there were more community members present at their presentation than at either of the other, more developed, parks. This, as became obvious during a later conversation with one of the assistant park directors that we gave a ride back to town, is due to her efforts in involving the communities in the park. Her hard work to develop a positive relationship with the communities meant that she not only contacted them to let them know we were coming, but that they also showed up. She even said that if transportation were better organized, even more community members would have shown!! So, again, the relationship between parks and communities is something that is fostered, developed, and grown, and it is often the work of committed individuals that makes it happen.
David presenting at Barra Honda National Park
So, in the end, we had a very productive, fun, and educational trip. It was a VERY different sort of fieldwork than any of us had conducted before, but it was one that left all of us feeling proud and excited about continuing to develop our relationships between Costa Rican parks and their surrounding communities. It was very fulfilling to be able to have a “broche de oro” (golden pin) for our project. I think that Sallie and Jessy were able to learn a lot about bringing information back to communities and organizations. As well, it was a nice way for our research team to reflect on the collective adventure we’ve been on for the last two years, and we even got to fit in a bit of exercise and fun in the parks!
Jessy and Sallie at the Overlook/ Mirador at Barra Honda National Park
David, Sallie and Jessy at the Barra Honda Mirador
We hope everyone else in the AMEC family is having a productive summer and that Costa Rica continues its success in the World Cup (it is only their second time to the round of 16)!!!! ¡Apoyamos la Sele, vamos Costa Rica!
See everyone back at the Cobb at the end of July!